- Date of birth: 24 Jan 1848
- Date of death: 19 Mar 1916
- Country: Russia
In the development of Russian art school has made a great contribution Surikov Vasily Ivanovich. He was born on 24 January (12 January – old calendar) 1848года in the Siberian city of Krasnoyarsk. Parents Surikov, father Ivan Surikov, who served as provincial Registrar and mother of Praskovya Fyodorovna, nee Torgoshin belonged to the descendants of the first Cossack birth. His ancestors on the paternal side, perhaps came to this region from the don almost in the time of Yermak. Cossack origin was to Surikov the subject of special pride – as evidenced by the fact that Vasily Ivanovich directly called himself a Russian Cossack.
About the early life, childhood Surikova, we know mainly from the work of the poet M. Voloshin. Shortly before the death of the painter, in 1913, M. Voloshin, working on a monograph on Surikova ordered I. Grabar, often met and talked with a great artist.
In 1859 father dies of the artist, his family is in a difficult financial situation. Praskovya Fedorovna was forced to surrender to the tenants of the second floor of his house, and she refused to casual earnings. Surikov graduated from the Krasnoyarsk district school in 1861 and entered the service in the provincial administration – clerk. By this time he had already decided that I would become an artist. Great luck and good fortune for Surikov was acquainted with N. Grebnev, who became his first mentor and teacher. Grebnev recognized in the teenager a lot of potential, and gently but firmly began to guide him in the right direction.
The fate of talented people have taken part and the Governor of Krasnoyarsk P. Zamyatin, which was sent to St. Petersburg a petition with a request to enroll in the Surikov Academy. Despite the fact that the petition was accepted, the scholarship Surikov Academy refused. Industrialists from Siberia in those days was distinguished by the breadth of his philanthropic activities, did not spare money on cultural and educational work. Among them were gold mines P. Kuznetsov, who undertook the Surikov providing everything necessary for the period of study in his Academy. At the end of 1868, the year Surikov industrial carts Kuznetsova went to conquer the art world. The road to Petersburg was occupied two months.
However, the Academy Surikov didn’t get – he had a bit of learning in Society for the encouragement of arts, where he “stuffed” hand drawing plaster casts, only after that he was enrolled in the Academy as a volunteer. Full student of the Academy Surikov was in August, 1870, completing the program of three years of study on their own.
This was followed by triumphs. Unfortunately the indignation of the teacher Surikov Chistyakov, guaranteeing overseas training gold medal, Surikov after completion of the Academy has not received. Six months later, Surikov still offered a trip abroad, but he refused it, holding the painting of the frescoes in the Cathedral of Christ the Savior in Moscow.
Thanks to the work in the temple, the artist received financial independence and a new environment. Once in the white stone, Surikov immediately felt native and permanently settled in Moscow. Created here “Menshikov in birch”, “Boyarynya Morozova”, “Morning of Streltsy’s execution” brought Vasily Ivanovich deserved recognition and a place among the outstanding artists of the era. After the show in 1881, the “Morning of the Streltsy execution” Surikov became an active member of the Wanderers, for 26 years, stepping down from the Partnership only in 1907, realizing that this movement hinders further development of painting.
As for his personal life of Vasily Ivanovich, there is a need to celebrate his marriage with Elizabeth She the Ball, a prisoner in 1878. They spent ten happy years; Elizabeth Surikov she gave birth to two daughters. After a serious illness she died in 1888, her death was the cause of severe depression Surikov. He stops writing and in 1889 he went with his children to Krasnoyarsk, hoping to stay in the “childhood town” forever.
Here on “the small homeland”, the depression recedes. Almost violently brother Surikov, forcing him to begin writing “the Capture of snow town”. Surikov is fond of work, and in the autumn of 1890 he returned to Moscow. The entire period of 1890-ies marked a new meaningful and coloristic quest – and, of course, a new spectacular masterpieces, has always been exhibited among the “Wanderers”.
In this and the subsequent decade Vasily a lot and traveled frequently. He visited Siberia, in the Crimea, on the Oka and the Volga. Visited Spain, Switzerland, Italy, France. In the twilight of his life Surikov remained passionate about grandiose ideas. But, unfortunately, not finished and remained “Krasnoyarsk rebellion”, “Pugachev”, “Princess Olga”. While on rest and treatment in Crimea in 1915, Surikov writes his last self-portrait, which serves as a good illustration of the characteristics of this Voloshin.
Outstanding Russian artist-Peredvizhnik died on March 19 (March 6 – according to the old calendar) in Moscow. Vagankovsky cemetery became the last refuge of the artist.