Museum of applied arts and life Russia XVII century
- Country: Russia
- City: Moscow
- Address: The Kremlin
Museum of applied arts and life Russia XVII century the youngest of all the museums of the Moscow Kremlin. His exposition is created from foundations only Armory in 1962. The Museum reveals the features of development of art culture of Russia of the XVII century and is housed in a building of the same era — in the former Palace of the Russian patriarchs.
The building itself is an interesting monument of Russian civil architecture of the XVII century, with the chapel, services, steep stairs within the walls, open galleries, back rooms and closets between floors. Once upon a time this place was built a wooden Palace for the head of the Russian Church — Metropolitan Peter, moved from Vladimir to Moscow. Metropolitan Jonah, who was elected in 1448, was erected on the site of wooden buildings, the first stone of the chamber. Since the establishment in Russia in 1589 of the Patriarchate Palace came to be called Patriarchal. Almost every new Archbishop of the Church is something rebuilt, altered to your taste. The surviving Palace built by Patriarch Nikon in the mid-seventeenth century.
Strong, smart politician, vasectomy to put the power of the Church over the power of the state, Nikon was one of the richest men in Russia. In all parts of the country he owned huge areas of land, twenty-five thousand hobgoblins farms worked on Patriarchou the Treasury, three specially constructed their monastery was to be the personal dynastic possessions of the Church of the monarch. Increased the territory and the Patriarchal court in the Kremlin. It stretched from the Cathedral of the assumption in the direction of the Troitsky gate of the Kremlin, including the old Palace of Boris Godunov. Numerous service — Forage and filling the yard, the Treasury house, a school for clerks and choristers, prison, icon workshop, Golden and Silver chamber, cellar — surrounded by a new three-storey Palace.
According to the tradition, the first floor of the Palace took orders. The Patriarch’s personal quarters — dining room, bedroom, office and the Keeper were on the third. The second floor was official. Here was the cross chamber, where the Patriarch received the Tsar, foreign ambassadors, and which hosted the meeting of the Holy Council. On the second floor was the domestic Church of the Twelve apostles, together with a refectory with her and three small rooms. Now the second floor is a Museum. Along the narrow and steep stairs, past the door that leads to the former patriarchou the kitchen, climb up and get into the ceremonial canopy. Here we start the acquaintance with the Museum.
In this first room are exhibited personal belongings of the customer of building of Patriarch Nikon and other heads of the Russian Orthodox Church. Exhibited in the Windows of SACCOs, hoods, staves are of great artistic and historical value. The head of the Church is the largest feudal Lord of ancient Russia. His life was like the king. Visitors get an idea about the situation of the Church in the system of the Russian state and the role of the Church in the history of Russian culture.
The largest hall of the Museum is the cross (or Chrism) chamberto which the door leads from the hall to the right. Built in 1655 Chamber with an area of 280 sq m was represented at that time the top of the building art. “The hall impresses with its extraordinary size, length and width,— recorded his impression of the contemporary— especially the amazing vast body without backwater in the middle. Around the circumference it made the stairs and the floor like the swimming pool, which lacks only water. It is lined with wonderful colorful tiles, huge Windows overlook the Cathedral, they inserted okonnitsy of the wonderful mica, decorated with different flowers like trash… in short, this building strikes the mind with surprise, that Thai may be there is none like him in the Royal Palace…””.
After the abolition of the Patriarchate and establishment in 1721, the Holy Synod, the architect Zarudny rebuilt Crusade of the chamber for the needs of the agencies of the Synod. In the late eighteenth century the House was rebuilt again by M. F. Kazakov and has been adapted for jam Miro — Church special fragrant oil used in baptism, the coronation, the coronation, consecration of temples. Since that time, the house was given a new name — mirovarennaya. Marble big fireplace with a carved wooden canopy over it and to this day stands in the House.
Most of the exhibits that’s in here now, helps to put those solemn dinners and receptions hosted by the Patriarch for the Tsar and his boyars on major religious holidays. In many showcases — the different utensils used at feasts. Considerable space is particularly expensive, privatisees from Europe, Turkey and Iran, tin, silver and gold dishes, plate, cups, cups, sulei, salt and pepper shakers.
One of the showcases reproduces the vintage cupboard — special kind of Cabinet for displaying expensive dinnerware. The historian I. E. Zabelin in the study “Home life of Russian tsars… says that “the utensils of gold, but mostly silver made after the icons almost the first article bedroom decorations, replacing for the time of works of fine arts: statues, vases, bronze that cleans the rooms in the XVIII century. Moreover, this cookware was a fortune that at every opportunity flaunted” 10°.
During the feasts of the shop, standing on a raised platform along the walls of the Chamber were covered with bright coloured fabrics, and the tables — tablecloths. One such tablecloth with woven images of pheasants, sturgeon, crayfish, pineapple was donated in 1629, the Danish king Christian IV to Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich.
The Museum has a variety of jewelry, used by both women and men: gold and silver buttons with precious stones and enamel, buckles, plaques, rings, rings, earrings. (Some of the men used to wear in one ear a large earring.) Very rare decoration was considered to be a pocket watch.Very interesting small collection of pocket watches of the XVI—XVII centuries. Watch as the little book belonged to Ivan the terrible. Silver watch, to resemble the onion, served as the patriarchs Philaret and Nikon. According to surviving documents it is possible to judge that a significant role in the decoration of the state rooms have played table clock. Among them was a watch “Bacchus” is the work of German artists, donated by a foreign Embassy to Ivan the terrible.
Watches represent a complex composition in a triumphal chariot drawn by an elephant, lies the God of wine and fun. Every hour all were in motion: Bacchus raised his drink, moved jaw and roll his eyes, the driver chased the elephant, the man behind God’s back, beat the clock, the bird on the head of Bacchus were eating grapes. After many decades of inactivity, this unique watch is again returned to life experienced by the Soviet restorers.
The Museum displays ancient manuscripts: “the Medicine of soul”, “Hodosovskaya facial Psalter”, a Primer of Karion Istomin. Art book and love it — a bright and distinctive phenomenon in the history of Russia. The book is artfully decorated with miniatures, ornamental multi-colored cutscenes, endings and initials.
“Book of wisdom— read the ABC’s of the XVII century— this is a Sunny grace, but by the grace dark cloud covers, and the book and wisdom the whole creation of sukriti can’t”.
“The mental cure” (1670) is one of the most interesting facial manuscripts in the Museum. This is a collection of instructive articles written on the three hundred and thirty-six sheets, with a huge number of miniatures. In its creation took part the Royal icon-painters and the artist of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra Nicephorus Kuzmin with “comrades”. Miniatures, written last, are more easy. They have no refinement and splendor characteristic of the works of the Royal icon-painters, but the perception of various events are more direct, fresh, they have created images and scenes more life. These miniatures represent a genre of particular interest to us. Here and love scenes, and a variety of images of the village, farmers, rural works, native landscapes, and even a steam room.
A primer of Karion Istomin is a unique handwritten copy made by the author specially for Tsarevich Alexei, son of Peter I. the Primer this was published also in print and was one of the first very intuitive and well-designed textbooks of Russia.
Along with the popular in Russia swords in the Museum store silver chess. Guess they were donated by the Brandenburg Ambassador to Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich. Known in Russia since the end of the eleventh century, chess began in the XVII century favorite game of all segments of the population. But the decree, published in the middle of the century, to play chess on Sundays was forbidden. However, as evidenced by the same documents, the prohibition of this very often violated.
And yet, despite the enthusiasm for checkers, chess, playing cards and dices, the availability of books for reading and first appeared with Alexis’s theater, a favorite pastime of the king and his entourage were hunting. This fun, unique sport of the XVII century, dedicated to the exhibition of objects of ceremonial hunting. Here are the traps, spears, steel with a gold notch, elastic bows with birch, cedar, cypress shafts, decorated with nacre and ivory lighter guns and graceful figure they came in the form of a running deer, in the form of a sea shell — in short, everything that could give pleasure to the hunter and help him to hunt, to drive bear, wild boar, elk, kill capercaillie, black grouse. A Museum has a special suit of red velvet with gold embroidered Royal Falconer — an indispensable party favorite hunting with falcons.
Two small rooms of the Patriarch’s Palace (the name and historical purpose of which has not yet been established) is dedicated to showing the rich decoration of the living choir of the XVII century. Such chambers were distinguished by luxury finishes and furnishings, although their overall appearance is quite consistent with well-established ancient traditions.
Low, narrow door, low arches, narrow mica Windows and a large dressed colored embossed tiles in the oven in the corner. Similarly, the master is not used to the stone house and live under the laws of the wooden buildings, where the winter ought in every way to keep warm. Along the walls stood benches and benches, wide, decorated with carvings. At night made them a feather bed, put the headboard under the pillow of the iron box with a sloping lid—usually kept money and valuables — and a bed ready.
In one of the rooms set the clock as the indispensable decoration of the rich choir, the celestial globe manuscripts (referred to above). Another sturdily built, wide table with curly legs. Near him is a chair with a high carved back for the guest of honor. Immediately a high cupboard or Cabinet of the foreign work. This furniture is from the mid-seventeenth century, became specifically to bring unassembled from Germany and Holland. In “the red corner” on a shelf covered with embroidered veil, obligatory icon. The room walls were often upholstered with fabric or embossed leather.
Of his private chambers on the third floor of Patriarch could pass on closed choirs of the chapel of the Twelve apostles, and there is not visible by anyone, to be present at the worship service. The entrance to the Church is from the hall through a small refectory, in which is exhibited the ancient Russian facial and ornamental embroidery, religious and household items of artistic interest.
After the great October revolution of the restorers returned the Church to its original appearance. In 1929, located in the temple iconostasis of the XIX century, representing the artistic value, replaced the iconostasis of the ascension Cathedral in the Kremlin. It was created by a talented Moscow carvers in 1721, in the traditions of the Moscow Baroque of late XVII century. The iconostasis impresses with its pure architectural order architectural shapes — cornices, pilasters, columns with capitals. And yet its Foundation is cut from a single piece of wood of the column in the form of free curly vine is an ancient symbol of Christianity. (Characteristically, folk carving and painting on wood of the vine brush is wide spread and has found a new sense of prosperity and wealth.) Clusters of grapes, carved, tightly curled leaves — all parts of the iconostasis covered with a thick layer of gesso and thickly gilded. When lit the candles and lamps they sparkle and Shine, just burn bright with cold fire.
Most of the icons of the iconostasis were written in the late seventeenth century. In 1984-1985, they were removed by the restorers layers of darkened varnish, and now the ancient painting affects the brightness of colors. A display of icons presented to the Church of the Twelve apostles, reveals the importance of the activities of the Royal icon-painters in the development of Russian painting. The placement of their works in the interior of the Church is due to the fact that in the second half of the seventeenth century, there worked many outstanding painters. The Museum exhibits the works of Simon Ushakov, Kirill Ulanov, Fedor Zubov and other masters.
Cognitive interest is located in one of the showcases icon of the XVII century “Adoration of the cross“. Researchers believe that the Creator of it was Royal painter, Ivan Saltanov. Painted on canvas of the icon is unusual in that the canonical composition included genuine historical figures, contemporaries of the painter — Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich and Patriarch Nikon. Saltanov tried to convey the portrait features the king and the Patriarch and all the features of their clothes. This work, like the works of Simon Ushakov, Georgiy Zinoviev, Fedor Zubov is definitely a milestone in the formation of the portraiture. Interesting in this respect, the portrait of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich on the horse. It was written in the late XVIII century from the original of the XVII century. The artist imitated popular in Western European art type of ceremonial equestrian portrait. Work while still naive, proportional. But this is an attempt to create a realistic social portrait. Works of painters of the second half of the seventeenth century are in many elements of the emerging secular art.