St. Petersburg Hermitage Museum: the location on the map. What you can see in the Hermitage?
- Country: Russia
- City: Saint Petersburg
- Address: Palace Embankment, 2
The famous St. Petersburg Hermitage Museum is housed in the former Palace of Russian monarchs. A huge collection of the famous Russian Museum now occupies five buildings: the Winter Palace, Small Hermitage, Old Hermitage Court theatre and the New Hermitage. The origins of the enormous collections of the Hermitage stood monarch – Empress Catherine II. In 1764 in Saint-Petersburg brought the 225 paintingsthat belonged to the large Berlin merchant I. Gotzkowsky. To repay his debt to the Russian Treasury, Gotzkowsky was offered money instead of his collection of paintings, written mostly by Dutch and Flemish painters.These paintings are so charmed the Empress, she began to collect paintings. Special people were sent abroad, so that they bought in Europe, works of art or even a large entire collection.
In 1769 from Dresden brought the collection of count Bruhl, the former Prime Minister of the elector of Saxony. It included paintings by Rubens, Rembrandt, Watteau and other great artists. In 1772 in Paris was bought a magnificent collection of the famous French connoisseur of the arts Baron P. Crozat. Thus in St. Petersburg was “the Holy family” by Raphael, “Danae” and several paintings of Rembrandt, “Judith” by Giorgione, works by Veronese, van Dyck, Tintoretto…
Unfortunately, not all works intended for the collection of the Empress, managed to reach St. Petersburg. In 1771, in the accident died of Dutch paintings, bought in the Hague. However, the collection of Catherine II, became more and more beautiful. Care enlightened Empress and the proper space for his paintings. Already in the years 1764-1767 near the Winter Palace by the architect J. B. Vallin de La Mothe built a new building, which was connected with the Palace by a covered walkway. At first St. Petersburg by the name of the architect called it Lamottemys pavilion. But later came into use another name — the Small Hermitage.
Photos Of The Hermitage
Catherine used Lipatov pavilion to communicate with his friends and courtiers. Techniques, unlike the front, was held here quite unofficially, there was not even the servants, and the tables with delicacies served up from the floor using a special lifting mechanisms. So the pavilion became known as the Hermitage – from the French ermitage, which means “the shelter of a hermit”.
В1774 G. French was published the first catalogue of the Hermitage, which has already been mentioned 2080 paintings. Five years later, the congregation added a valuable collection of the former Prime Minister of England Lord Robert Walpole, sold by his heirs. Here was 198 works of the great painters Rubens, Jordaens, van Dyck. In 1781, at the Hermitage appeared bought in Paris collection of count Baudouin of the 119 paintings. And besides, paintings in the collection of the Empress was already prints, drawings, coins, medals, pieces of carved stone…
The collection became bigger, they needed new premises. Back in 1771 by architect Y. M. Felten began construction of the Great Hermitage. With a Small it combined a walkway. But the Palace construction during the reign of Catherine II not ended: from 1783 to 1787, Giacomo Quarenghi built the Hermitage theater. Together with the Winter Palace, as well as Small and Large Hermitages now it is included in a single architectural ensemble, which stretches along the Neva river. Later, in the mid-nineteenth century, during the reign of Nicholas I, grandson of Catherine II, was built the building of the New Hermitage, adjacent to the Large Hermitage on the inner side and facing the Million street. Therefore, the Large Hermitage became known as the Old Hermitage.
The collection of Catherine II continued to develop and other Russian emperors. But in the history of the Hermitage, there was a tragic event that nearly destroyed all his treasures: 17 Dec 1837 Winter Palace fire broke out. The flames had already spread to the buildings of the Hermitage. The roof and walls of the Small Hermitage watered, and transitions, of doors and Windows facing the Winter Palace, the hastily laid bricks. The fire raged for three days, at the end of the Winter Palace, leaving only the stone skeleton, but the rest of the Palace structures have survived. After a year, the Winter Palace was fully restored and its halls again began to sparkle with the same brilliance. It was at this time began to build and the New Hermitage. The facades it was decided to decorate the statues of poets and scholars of different times, and the mighty Atlantes of grey granite, created by sculptor A. I. Terebenev by, and still hold on their shoulders the balcony.
The new Hermitage was conceived as a Museumavailable not only for the courtiers but also for ordinary visitors. Therefore, it has placed pictures of other buildings of the Hermitage and the works selected in the suburban Imperial palaces, and also found in the South of Russia during archeological excavations of Scythian and Greek monuments.
The official public opening of the Museum held on 5 Feb 1852 G., was very lush. In the Hermitage theatre gave a performance in the Museum halls was arranged a sumptuous dinner. Of course, the first guests of the Museum were far from simple people. And in the future pass to the Hermitage were given on the recommendation of influential people, a special office under the Ministry of the Imperial court. Visitors ought to come to the Museum in evening dress or ceremonial uniforms.
What can be seen in the Hermitage Museum in our days
Free access to the Hermitage was opened in 1863 , at the Emperor Alexander II. By 1914, the Museum was visited by 180 thousand people a year. Well, in our days, the account goes on millions. Now in the Hermitage lovers of beauty attracts not only the richest collection of Western art, one of the best in the world, but the incomparable state rooms of the Winter Palace, the marble, gold, jewels, Large, malachite, field Marshal, Peter, George… To George hall is adjacent to the famous Military gallery, built in 1826 On its walls – more than 300 portraits of generals who participated in the Patriotic war of 1812
Fortunately, during the fire of 1837, these paintings, like other Palace valuables, managed to get out of the fire. The Hermitage to get around in one day is impossible. After all, every visitor in addition to paintings certainly trying to see built during the reign of Catherine II the loggia of Raphael, a copy of the famous gallery in the Vatican, painted by the great Italian painter Raphael. A special thank is and knights ‘ hall, where the samples of medieval weapons and armor. In the Gold pantry of the Hermitage unique jewelry XVI—XIX centuries, but also gold objects found by archaeologists in the Scythian burial mounds on the site of the ancient Greek colonies in the black sea.