The Basilica (Cathedral) of St. Peter, Vatican city – description
- Country: The Vatican
- City: Vatican City
- Address: Piazza San Pietro, 00120 Citta del Vaticano
A Basilica is a monument to Peterwhom Jesus had chosen the chief Apostle, declaring that Peter is the rock on which he built the Church. Because Rome was the capital of the Empire, Peter, along with the Apostle Paul came here to bring faith in the Lord at the beginning of the first Millennium. But the early Christians were persecuted for their faith and as the Church tradition in 64 ad Peter was arrested and transferred to one of the vast circus arenas of the Empire and martyred on an inverted cross. His body was carried outside the walls of the arena, and there, on the slope of what was called the Vatican hill, was buried, possibly in a small indoor crypt.
St. Peter’s Cathedral, the statue in front of the entrance, the evening
The history of the construction of the Cathedral
Almost 300 years later Constantine I, the Christian Emperor of Rome, ordered to build a huge Church on the site of the tomb of St. Peter, which has become by the time of little graves in a medium-sized temple. What is interesting in the whereabouts of Basilica, is the fact that the terrain, the hillside, the Imperial circus, the Roman road, the cemetery has made the construction of the Church on this point is almost impossible, but the Emperor insisted that it should stand here, and the axis of the Church, the place where the altar should be in here. Perched on the tomb of the Apostle, the first Basilica of St. Peter included the original temple on the floor of the altar. The Basilica, the monument of Constantine Peter, stood for about 1,200 years, and was demolished to make way for the new Church. But by that time, in a remarkable twist of fate in the ancient Roman cemetery under the Church was completely forgotten. The secrets it kept, including details of Peter’s funeral, surfaced to the light of God early 20 century.
He is like the father, postertime hands, as if calling to himself all his children to St. Peter’s Basilica – the heart of the Catholic world. 132 meters shoots his cross into the Roman sky. The greatest artists of the Renaissance, and, above all, Michelangelo, erected this enormous Cathedral. Stones for building are taken from the Coliseum, building the Roman forum, the marble slabs from the ruins of pagan temples.
Inside The Cathedral Of St. Peter
In the mid 16th century Bernini created the colonnade around the Egyptian obelisk. The colonnades is located North of the Papal Palace – the residence of the head of the Roman Catholic Church. The obelisk stands on the ground soaked in blood. In the time of Nero, here, to the West of the Tiber, before the walls of Rome tortured and executed by the proponents of the new religion. One of them was Peter. Now, on warm days, tens of thousands of pilgrims and tourists from all over the world flock to his grave.
On Saint Peter and his deeds
Peter is the rock on which for 2,000 years has affirmed the Kingdom of faith. Until the middle ages, the followers of Peter lived in the Eastern part of Rome – Lateran, and only at the end of the Babylonian captivity of the Church in Avignon in 1377 the Papal residence was the Vatican. From the dome of St. Peter view overlooking the Governor’s Palace, the administration building, the station and radio station – “Radio of Vatican“. 96 statues of saints crown the colonnade of Bernini. How glorious it all had to seem to the pilgrims, saw the Cathedral in the year 1600 at the end of construction. Today it has not lost its grandeur.
Joining the Cathedral if you lose touch with the outside world. Saying that statue of Peter – the creation of sculptor Arnolfo Di Cambio, has a miraculous power. The Holy grave believed to be located nearby in an underground crypt. The altar of the middle space is crowned with a tabernacle, created in 1624 by Bernini. Only the Pope has the right to serve a mass there. Columns, the papal seat is installed over the tomb of Peter. Deepest reverence covers here pilgrims. Just a few more steps bring us to the famous Pieta, Michelangelo, that many years ago, a madman smashed with a hammer. Here, in the crypt, archeologists found not only the Foundation of the first Church, but the Greek letters indicating the place of burial of the Apostle Peter.
The dome – the work of Michelangelo has two bowls. Between the internal and external spiral staircase leading up here all of Rome is visible at a glance – and the banks of the Tiber and the castle of the angel.
Before the execution of the apostles Peter and Paul languished for 7 months in the dungeon of St. Peter’s. Now here the Church of San Giuseppe dei Falegnami.
In this dungeon, according to legend, Peter was converted to Christianity not only the 47 other inmates, but both guards. They freed him, he fled from Rome on the Appian road met the Lord. He accusingly asked, “Where are you Peter?” He came back, and was crucified.
The St. Peter’s prison was the state prison of Rome. Many famous prisoners died of starvation or were executed, in particular nemitsky the king of Yogurt, king Arhetoric who was captured and brought alive to Rome, Caesar. Their names can be read on the memorial plaque. The bloody executions of the deposed enemies of Rome was dedicated to the God of war – Mars.