Sculpture, as one of the oldest art forms, varies with the people and time. And sculptures of the Renaissance is no exception. What do we know about the Renaissance or, in Latin, of the Renaissance?
It is a cultural layer, which has replaced the ascetic middle ages and brought with it a revival of antiquity, the flowering of culture, humanism, identifying the man as the highest value.
Italy of the thirteenth century is considered the cradle of the Renaissance and lasted this era until the 16th century, when they began to appear new directions and styles in art. The sculpture, which previously only adorned with reliefs of architectural structures during the Renaissance gradually acquires independence. And by the end of the 16th century, it is a separate art form.
Art historians divide the Renaissance arbitrarily into four stages.
The proto-Renaissance through appeared in the late middle ages and the brightest representative was sculptor and architect Arnolfo di Cambio. He is the author of the main Cathedral in Florence, the statue of king Charles I in Rome, fountain in Perugia with numerous sculptures. The work of Arnolfo di-he is campio influenced by antiquity, they are calm and Mature, impregnated with the Greek spirit. Under the hand of the master, they become more intuitive, expressive, performed, plastic, close to reality. Proof of this is his sculpture “the Mourning of John Mary.”
Early Renaissance covers the entire 15th century. Sculpture as the art begins to separate from the religious medieval canons. The name Donatello di Niccolo di Betto Bardi most famous in that period. He was the first to “unstick” from a wall relief images of sculptures deepen indiwidualiziruyutza. First created Nudes. As well as working on the equestrian statue of the condottiere Gattamelata, the first monument in bronze, he found unusual for that time a decision on the location of the sculpture relative to the walls of the building. Because of this, the whole contour of the rider and horse looks great with any party not merges with the facade of the Church and this seems more significant and monumental, despite its small size.
The high Renaissance is the rise and peak of the Renaissance. It lasts from the end of the 15 century to the 20-ies 16. Played a significant role in this and came to the papal throne of Pope Julius II. He is known as the patron of the arts. It created their masterpieces such talents as Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and the great Michelangelo. Michelangelo Buonarroti, though he lived almost 90 years, has done a lot of work. But his world-famous David, is the pinnacle of the Renaissance and of human genius. His sculptures are powerful and bulky, but at the same time fascinate the flexibility and reality of the object. The sculpture of the High Renaissance period emerged from the shadow of architecture finally, it is independent from religion, from the masters of sculpture appear customers. The sculpture becomes a classic, worthy of its ancient Greco-Roman ancestors.
To the Late Revival of the probation include the second half of the 16th century. Here is difficult to call the time when there is a crisis and decline of the Renaissance and begins a new stage in art – mannerism, it is the transition before the next style in sculpture and architecture – the Baroque. So various in its manifestations of the masters of sculpture and artists. Too loose is the attitude of authors to the principles and forms of ancient art. Great influence in this period was the Italian sculptor, painter and goldsmith Benvenuto Cellini. His famous relief of the Nymph of Fontainebleau made in bronze for the king of France Francis the first. Connoisseurs of art will relate this work to early mannerism. Also the last sculptural group Pieta, done by Michelangelo, as if completes not only his career, but also the Renaissance.
The influence of the Renaissance is of great importance for understanding and studying human nature in General, for the revival of ancient culture, in particular. The sculpture, thanks to the Revival, became more understandable and accessible to ordinary people, awakened in them the need for beauty and aesthetics. The Renaissance gave rise to many brilliant artists, whose masterpieces still never cease to delight and amaze with its splendor.